Python Classroom Series – 31/Aug/2020

Who can access data in objects

  • Many object oriented languages have the concept of access control(abstraction). Apply access control modifiers to members of methods
    • private: only methods inside object can access them
    • protected: only methods inside current class & sub-classes will be able to access
    • public: any one who creates object can access
  • Python doesn’t do this. In python everything is public.
  • Python gives you some conventions which help in making python programmers not use members directly.
  • By convention, if we prefix a method or internal attribute (member) with underscore, Python programmer will interpret this as internal variable.
  • Whenever you create a class, to mark any thing as internal use underscore as mentioned in the below example
class Credentials:
    Credentials class to hold username & password

    def __init__(self, username='admin', password='admin@123'):
        initilzation of credentials
        :param username: username
        :param password: password
        self._username = username
        self._password = password

    def username(self):
        Username access property
        :return: username
        return self._username

    def password(self):
        Password access property
        :return: password
        return self._password
  • If you want to strongly suggest outside objects don’t access method or property or attribute use double underscore. This will perform name mangling

Third Party Libraries

  • Python has very decent Standard Library with lots of packages & modules.
  • You can create your own packages or modules or you can probably find the library which you want from Python Package Index (PyPI) Refer Here
  • To install these libraries we use a tool called as pip
  • Installing pip
python -m ensurepip
  • pip is a tool for managing python packages. pip is python’s package manager
  • Installing, upgrading & deleting python packages can be done by pip tool
pip --help


  • Lets start with an example package installation called as requests Preview
  • now Lets install requests
pip install requests


  • Since the request package is downloaded i can use the packages & modules from requests in my python class/script. Lets look at developer interface of requests Refer Here `
  • If we start using pip for different projects on the same machine which uses different versions of third party libraries it becomes very much difficult. Python recommends using virtual environment
  • Basic purpose of virtual environment is to create an isolate environment for python projects. This means that each project can have its own dependencies
  • Creating virtual environments is very easy using virtualenv or pyenv command line tools
  • Lets create one virtual environment
mkdir virtual-env
cd virtual-env
python -m venv env

Preview Preview

  • Now we can activate this virtual environment using activate scripts

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